商务英语的课程内容:FTBE一天学一点之商务英语有什么特殊之处⑤-2

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摘要

但就这本书的目的而言,语篇是用来描述人们如何在语境中互动的。在这个意义上,商业语篇指的是在商业中出现的书面和口语交流。一个策略是语域(正式或专业化的程度,特别是主题词汇)的使用。口语语篇通常出现在商务英语训练中,因为它更直接。学习者会有时间查阅一些书面的语篇,但是对口语语篇的需求更为紧急,所以在商务英语课堂中,口语有时更加重要。

之于商务英语教学

Teaching business communication

语篇能力 Discourse competence

语言能力指的是在最根本的层次上如何处理语言成分,主要专注语境之外的语言。虽然语篇一词在语言学家眼里有各种各样的理解方式,然而在这里语篇能力是指语言的使用。但就这本书的目的而言商务英语的课程内容,语篇是用来描述人们如何在语境中互动的。典型的例子包括谈判、通信、演说、商务接触、会议等。在这个意义上,商业语篇指的是在商业中出现的书面和口语交流。通过类比的方式,如果语言能力指的是语言的建筑模块,那么语篇能力则指的是整栋房屋。就像房屋的所有者使用不同的房间来满足不同的功能一样,语篇的参与者也在不同的语境中交流,不同的语境需要不同的策略。

Linguistic competence deals with elements of language at a basic level, and tends to focus on language out of context。 Discourse competence, on the other hand, deals with language in use, although it is important to note that the word discourse can be used in a variety of ways by language professionals。 For the purposes of this book, however, discourse is used to describe how people interact with each other within context。 Typical examples of this include negotiations, correspondence, presentations, service encounters, meetings, and so on。

In this sense, business discourse refers to the spoken and written communication that is found within the world of business。 By way of analogy, if linguistic competence refers to the building blocks of language, discourse competence refers to the whole house。 Like the occupants in a house, who use different rooms for different functions, the participants in the discourse have to communicate within different contexts; it follows that different discourses require different strategies。

一个策略是语域(正式或专业化的程度,特别是主题词汇)的使用。比如说在酒吧中的谈话可以使用口语和日常的词汇,这和我们在与国际合作伙伴签订合同的会议上所使用的语域是完全不同的,在会议上要使用更正式的语言和更专业的词汇。语篇的另一个特点是某参加者会比其他的参与者拥有更高的权力,这也会反映在他们使用语言的风格上。因此,语篇也可以反映个体之间的关系,甚至可以把它看做是操控他人的工具。与此相关的概念是文体,文体主要是辨别不同风格文本之间的差异(例如商务英语的课程内容,是什么使得备忘录和投诉信有所不同?又是什么使电话交谈和陈述报告不同?)

One strategy involves the use of register (the degree of formality, or the degree of specificity, especially of topic vocabulary). So, for example, a chat in a pub would use a colloquial, everyday type of lexis, and would therefore have a different register from what we would expect to find in a meeting of international consortium partners about to sign a major contract, which would probably have more formal language and specific lexis. Another aspect of discourse is that often one of the participants may hold more power than the other participants, and this is also reflected in the types of language used. Thus discourse can reflect relationship between individuals, and can even be seen as a tool for manipulating others. Related to this is the concept of genre, which seeks to distinguish between different types of texts (for example, what makes a memo different from a letter of complaint, or a telephone conversation different from a presentation?).

语篇可以是口语或是书面的。口语语篇通常出现在商务英语训练中,因为它更直接。学习者会有时间查阅一些书面的语篇,但是对口语语篇的需求更为紧急,所以在商务英语课堂中,口语有时更加重要。书面语也同样的重要,因为书写的语篇能保存更长时间,所以错误就不容易被忘记。

Discourse can be spoken or written. Spoken discourse is often covered in business English training because it is more immediate; a learner may have time to look something up in written discourse, but the demands of spoken discourse tend to be more urgent, and so it is sometimes seen as more important in the business English classroom. The converse can also be argued: that written discourse provides a more permanent record, and so mistakes might be less easily forgiven.

有很多分析口语语篇的方法,其中一种就是对话分析,指的是用社会学的方法分析人们在说话时互动和交流的方式。互动是就已经发生的事情交流时的一个动态的过程。对话有一些特点,这些特点能够帮助我们了解已经发生了什么,以及现在正在如何发展。口语互动有自己的结构,对话的参与者轮流说话商务英语的课程内容,有一些规则规定哪些是允许的,哪些是不允许的。例如,参与者听对方说话以及在对方说话时停止说话,这些都是很正常的。这就是话轮替换。

There are many ways to analyse spoken discourse. One of these is conversation analysis, which is a sociological approach used to analyse the way people interact with each other in talk. Interaction is seen as a dynamic process which develops by taking into account what has already happened. Conversations have certain characteristics, and these can be used to help understand what is happening and how it is happening. Spoken interaction has a structure. Participants in a conversation take turns to speak, and there are rules which govern what is and is not allowed. For example, it is normal for participants to listen to each other, and to stop talking when another participant is talking. This is known as turn-taking.

通常话语都是成对出现的,比如一问一答、抱怨和抱歉或者问候和答应问候。

Often utterances come in pairs, such as a question and answer, or complaint and an apology, or a greeting and a responsive greeting.

对话同时有开放或者是封闭的次序。例如,电话对话通常可以使用下面的一些或所有的成分来开始:

Conversations also have opening and closing sequences. For example, a telephone conversation often starts off by using some or all of the following components:

注意语言使用不仅仅依赖于标准的次序商务英语的课程内容:FTBE一天学一点之商务英语有什么特殊之处⑤-2,同时依赖于听者和说者之间的关系。如果电话是买主和卖主之间的,雇主和雇员之间的,两个好朋友或同事之间的,其语言和语调都会有很大的不同。

Note that the language used depends not only on the standard sequences, but also on the relationship between the caller and the receiver. The language and the tone will be very different if the call was between a buyer and seller, or an employer and employee, or two colleagues who were good friends.

#FTBE一天学一点#

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